Private Key vs Public Key in Cryptocurrency

Last Updated on May 10, 2023

Private Key vs Public Key in Cryptocurrency

Public and private keys are probably something you’ve heard of if you possess any form of cryptocurrency or are just generally into the topic. These are essential to the operation of cryptocurrencies and guarantee the protection of your money from adversarial parties. But how exactly do public and private keys operate? Today, we’ll describe the differences between the two and explain why they’re so crucial in the world of cryptocurrency.

What is a Private Key?

Your private key is unquestionably the most crucial piece of information you’ll ever receive in the field of cryptography. To carry out transactions using your money, a private key, which functions as a passcode, is necessary. Each transaction is basically “signed” with it to show that you approved it. Private keys are, of course, just that—private. Sharing your private key with someone allows them access to your crypto, thus you should never do so.

The majority of cryptocurrency owners opt to keep their private keys in a wallet. There are countless cryptocurrency wallets available today, each with unique benefits and disadvantages. However, some people choose to save their private keys manually, without the aid of technology. Either way, you should ensure that your private keys are always being kept as safe as possible.

However, there are instances where a third party holds your private key. Your private keys are stored by the wallet provider if you use a custodial cryptocurrency wallet. Custodial wallets can be a security issue, therefore some people like them for their convenience, while others would want to keep their private keys to themselves.

Read: All You Need To Know About Cryptocurrency

What is a Public Key?

A public key, in contrast to a private key, can be viewed or shared with any user on a certain blockchain. A public key, which is specific to you and your assets, is a long string of random characters like a private key. Since public keys are lengthy, they are condensed into wallet addresses to make it simpler for others to deal with you.

While a public key might be compared to an email address or a bank account number, a private key can be thought of as a type of password. They identify you or an account that belongs to you. Sharing your public key won’t jeopardise your cryptocurrency because it can’t be used to access or transfer funds.

But don’t worry, retrieving someone’s private key from their public key is practically impossible. It would take a wicked person billions of years to succeed if they tried. A public key cannot be used to steal money because, in public-key cryptography, public keys encrypt and private keys decrypt. Because of this, private keys must be protected, whereas public keys do not.

The Differences Between a Public Key and a Private Key

The purpose of both public and private keys is to confirm that a given transaction was actually carried out by the party who signed it and wasn’t just created out of thin air. Even while both forms of encryption serve the same function, they are very different from one another.


The wallet’s owner is the only person who has access to the private key, which is kept private. Once lost, the private key cannot be recovered, rendering the encrypted file useless. These keys typically have complicated numbering, making them hard to memorise. Private key security, however, is entirely up to the owner. Because of this, using an offline storage device is the most secure way to keep your private keys secure. The public key, on the other hand, is visible to all users and ought to come up in searches. The public key is unlikely to be lost.

Algorithm and Mechanism

Faster than the public key mechanism is the private key mechanism. This is so that a private key only needs one key, whereas a public key needs two keys. Two distinct keys are required for encryption and decryption in public-key encryption. The public key is accessible to everyone, whereas the private key is solely for the owner. Symmetric key cryptography only allows for the transfer of one key between the two parties involved. The information is encrypted and decrypted using the same private key. An encrypted message’s sender and recipient both share it.

Encryption and Decryption

Only the user’s private key can be used to decrypt the material after it has been encrypted using their public key. The message can only be converted back that way.

The advantages of encryption for security include:

  • Privacy. No unauthorized access is possible. Confidentiality is achieved by using the private key that is known only to its owner and nobody else.
  • Integrity. The encryption process with a secured public key guarantees that the received message is not altered.

A wide variety of applications and system software implement a big number of protocols and data formats that use public key cryptography. This covers the SSL protocol, SSH, PDFs that have been digitally signed, OpenPGP, S/MIME, etc. It is frequently used in software applications, like browsers, to provide secure connections in dubious networks. The blockchain algorithm, which serves as the foundation for all cryptocurrencies, is based on asymmetric cryptography.

Main Functions

The primary purpose that public and private keys serve is one of the most obvious distinctions between them. The scalability, dependability, and system speed of a private key are typically tested. However, in the event of a public key, a load testing check is preferable. On the other side, to decrypt data received at the sender’s end, a user would require a private key. It will enable users to view messages, but they will still require a private key to decrypt them.

Digital Signature

The user’s public key and private key can be used to digitally sign and validate the web content, respectively. This makes it simple to determine the message sender in the network and to ensure that a message came from a reliable source.

The digital signature offers a number of security advantages, including:

  • Authentication. It proves if the message or user is legal or not as forging is impossible.
  • Non-negation. The message sender cannot deny the signature after communication.
  • Integrity. The signature serves as a guarantee that the received message is not altered.

Cryptography Category

The cryptographic categories that the two sorts of keys can be applied to also distinguish them from one another. For instance, symmetric cryptography, which uses just one key to transfer data between two users, is one application where private keys are most frequently employed. On the other hand, a public key employs an asymmetric technique and is visible to everyone. Comparing this process to a private key would be completely incorrect.

How Public and Private Keys Control Your Crypto

Understanding how public and private keys interact is essential to comprehending how cryptocurrency transactions work. When you claim to possess cryptocurrencies, what you’re actually claiming to be in possession of is a private key that serves as ownership documentation. Anyone can use your public key to confirm that you are the owner because it is stored on the blockchain.

Whether you decide to “hold your own keys” or put your confidence in a custodian relies on a variety of factors, including your philosophy and level of risk tolerance. Consider using one of the many excellent current HD wallets if you manage your own private keys, but always keep them to yourself. Make sure you choose a reliable, respected company that places a high priority on security and regulation if you choose a custodial solution like an exchange.

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