What is Cryptocurrency and How It Works

Last Updated on May 18, 2023


Cryptocurrency, sometimes known as crypto, is any type of digital or virtual currency that uses encryption to safeguard transactions.

Cryptocurrency is a digital payment mechanism that does not rely on banks for transaction verification. It’s a peer-to-peer system that allows anyone to make and receive payments from anywhere. Cryptocurrency payments exist solely as digital entries to an online database identifying specific transactions, rather than as tangible money carried around and exchanged in the real world. The transactions that you make with cryptocurrency funds are recorded in a public ledger. The funds are stored in digital wallets.

The moniker “cryptocurrency” comes from the fact that it uses encryption to verify transactions. This means that storing and sending cryptocurrency data between wallets and to public ledgers requires complex coding. Encryption’s goal is to ensure security and safety.

Many cryptocurrencies are decentralized networks based on blockchain technology, which is a distributed ledger maintained by a network of computers. Cryptocurrencies are distinguished by the fact that they are not issued by any central authority, making them potentially impervious to government intervention or manipulation.

The ordinary money that we use is referred to be centralized money, and it is overseen by authorities such as the Central Bank. In the case of cryptocurrencies, decentralization means that no similar authority can be held accountable for overseeing the growth and fall of a particular cryptocurrency. This has a lot of advantages versus centralized money.

Bitcoin, the first cryptocurrency, was created in 2009 and is still the most well-known today. Much of the fascination with cryptocurrencies stems from the desire to trade for profit, with speculators driving prices high at times.

Read: All You Need To Know About Cryptocurrency

How it works

The government and central regulatory institutions have no control over cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrency, as a concept, operates outside of the banking system, employing many brands or types of coins, the most prominent of which is Bitcoin.


The process of “mining” is used to create cryptocurrencies (which are entirely digital). This is a lengthy procedure. Miners are essentially obliged to solve specific mathematical challenges on specially equipped computer systems in exchange for bitcoins. In an ideal environment, mining one bitcoin would take only ten minutes, but in fact, the process takes around 30 days.

Buying, selling, and storing

Users can now purchase or sell cryptocurrencies from central exchanges, brokers, and individual currency owners. The simplest way to buy or sell cryptocurrencies is through exchanges or websites like Coinbase.

Cryptocurrencies can be held in digital wallets once purchased. “Hot” and “cold” digital wallets exist. The term “hot” refers to a wallet that is connected to the internet, making it simple to transact but also prone to theft and fraud. Cold storage, on the other hand, is safer, but it makes transactions more difficult.

Transacting or investing

Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies can be transferred effortlessly from one digital wallet to another using only a smartphone. You may either use them to buy products or services, trade them in, or exchange them for cash once you have them.

If you want to buy something using Bitcoin, the quickest way to do it is to use a debit card. These debit cards can also be used to withdraw cash, much like an ATM. Banking accounts or peer-to-peer transactions can also be used to convert cryptocurrency to cash.

Types of Cryptocurrency

There are currently tens of thousands of cryptocurrencies accessible, with that number expected to rise to around 18,000 by 2022. The following are some of the most popular cryptocurrencies.


Bitcoin is the first and most extensively used cryptocurrency in the world. It is so well-known that it was formerly used interchangeably with the term “cryptocurrency.” However, potential investors should be aware that bitcoins have become quite pricey. The price of one Bitcoin in 2021 was $68,000. In January 2022, it was $47,000. The good news is that you don’t have to buy the complete coin; you may buy parts of it. However in May, it crashed to almost half of it’s value ($29,000). This just goes to show just how volatile the crypto market is.


All cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin are referred to as altcoins (BTC). However, because most cryptocurrencies are forked from one of the two, some people consider altcoins to be all cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin and Ethereum (ETH). Some cryptocurrencies employ different consensus mechanisms to validate transactions and open new blocks, or they try to differentiate themselves from Bitcoin and Ethereum by offering new or additional features or functions. The majority of altcoins are created and launched by developers with a different vision or purpose in mind for their tokens or currencies. Find out more about altcoins and how they differ from Bitcoin.

Crypto tokens

The word “crypto token” refers to a unique virtual currency token or the method by which cryptocurrencies are valued. These tokens are fungible and tradeable assets or services with their own blockchains. Crypto tokens are frequently used to raise funds for crowd sales, but they can also be used to replace other items. The conventional initial coin offering (ICO) method, which comprises a crowdsourcing exercise to support project development, is used to produce, distribute, sell, and circulate these tokens.

Is cryptocurrency a good investment?

Regardless of how you look at it, cryptocurrency is a risky investment. High-risk assets should, in general, make up a small portion of your overall portfolio – one frequent rule is no more than 10%. You might want to start by bolstering your retirement savings, paying off debt, or investing in less volatile stock and bond funds.

Other approaches to limit risk in your crypto portfolio include diversifying the types of cryptocurrency you purchase. Because crypto assets increase and fall at various rates and over different time periods, diversifying your holdings can help you protect yourself — to some extent — from losses in one of your holdings.

Bottom Line

Whether cryptocurrency is the future of money or not, one thing is certain: investing in it without sufficient research is not recommended. Investing in cryptocurrencies isn’t a brand-new trend. However, given bitcoin’s recent rise in popularity and value, as well as the low returns on bank accounts, more people are seeking cryptocurrency advice.

If you wish to invest in cryptocurrencies, start with the more popular ones, such as bitcoin, because newer ones may not have enough liquidity (you may not be able to sell them when you want to). Scammers abound on the market. As a result, it’s critical to acquire or sell cryptos through authorized platforms, especially when you’re just getting started.

Before You Go…

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